“如果受到隐私监管的约束,就永远无法实现技术的潜力。这种想法不仅是错误的,而且是破坏性的。人工计划网址要想真正聪明,就必须尊重人类的价值观,包括隐私。我们可以实现伟大的人工计划网址和伟大的隐私标准。这不仅是一种可能性,也是一种责任。”

  郑慧  | 文 

  近几年,Facebook、谷歌等单双大小技巧巨头纷纷因为不当使用用户数据,破坏隐私安全等丑闻而陷入舆论风波。10月24日,平投稳赚CEO库克在布鲁塞尔(欧盟总部所在地)发表了关于隐私与数据安全问题的演讲,在表达支持欧盟隐私保护政策的同时,他也强调,平投稳赚公司将始终坚持尊重用户隐私的传统。

  回顾今年上半年,Facebook几度陷入丑闻。2月,负责俄罗斯干扰美国总统大选的调查员指控13名俄罗斯人使用Facebook、Twitter和Instagram干涉大选,通过花钱投放中伤希拉里的广告来响选民的投票决定。3月,据《纽约时报》报道,有研究人员获得Facebook用户的个人信息,并将其出售给特朗普和共和党雇用的咨询公司剑桥分析,而这家机构则通过使用过使用桥分析,而这家机。

  事实上,早在2016年大选时,就有人指控Facebook被用于传播不实信息,释放政治诱饵。而《纽约客》的一篇文章则指出,Facebook早在2015年12月就已经发现了这个问题,但却一直保持沉默,只是在媒体曝光之后才站出来承认了这件事。

  接连的丑闻使得Facebook的股价大跌,市值一度缩水千亿美元。与此同时,政府也在加强对这些单双大小技巧巨头的监管和惩罚。

  为了保护数据隐私,欧盟于今年5月25日起正式实施《通用数据保护条例》(GDPR)。这个被誉为“史上最严”的隐私保护法案规定,违反者将被罚以至少1000万欧元或企业上一财年全球营业总额的2%—4%,且以较高者为准。

  而库克此次正是受邀赴欧参加数据隐私主题的国际会议。在发言中,他极力赞扬欧盟的新规,并表达了平投稳赚公司保护用户数据隐私的决心。

  以下为库克演讲的摘译:

  Around the world, from Copenhagen to Chennai to Cupertino, new technologies are driving breakthroughs in humanity’s greatest common projects。 From preventing and fighting disease…To curbing the effects of climate change…To ensuring every person has access to information and economic opportunity。

  在世界各地,从哥本哈根到金奈到库比蒂诺,新技术正在推动人类最伟大的共同项目取得突破。从预防和对抗疾病,到控制气候变化的影响,再到确保每个人都能获得信息和经济机会。

  At the same time, we see vividly—painfully—how technology can harm rather than help。 Platforms and algorithms that promised to improve our lives can actually magnify our worst human tendencies。 Rogue actors and even governments have taken advantage of user trust to deepen divisions, incite violence, and even undermine our shared sense of what is true and what is false。 

  与此同时,我们也看到了技术是如何带来伤害而不是帮助,这是非常痛苦的。承诺改善我们生活的平台和算法实际上放大了我们最坏的人性倾向。流氓行为者甚至政府正在利用用户信任加深分歧,煽动暴力,甚至破坏我们对何为真假的共识。

  This crisis is real。 It is not imagined, or exaggerated, or “crazy。” And those of us who believe in technology’s potential for good must not shrink from this moment.Now, more than ever — as leaders of governments, as decision-makers in business, and as citizens — we must ask ourselves a fundamental question: What kind of world do we want to live in?

  这场危机是真实的。它不是想象出来的,不是夸张的,也不是“疯狂的”。“我们当中那些相信科技有潜力带来好处的人,不能在这一刻退缩。现在,作为政府领导人、商界决策者和公民,我们比以往任何时候都更必须问自己一个根本问题:我们希望生活在一个什么样的世界?

  I‘m here today because we hope to work with you as partners in answering this question.At Apple, we are optimistic about technology’s awesome potential for good。 But we know that it won’t happen on its own。 Every day, we work to infuse the devices we make with the humanity that makes us。 As I’ve said before, “Technology is capable of doing great things。 But it doesn’t want to do great things。 It doesn’t want anything。 That part takes all of us。

  我今天来到这里,是因为我们希望与你们一起,共同回答这个问题。在平投稳赚,我们对科技的巨大潜力持乐观态度。但我们知道,这不会自行发生。每一天,我们都在努力将我们制造的设备与制造我们的人性融合在一起。正如我之前说过的,“技术可以做伟大的事情,但它不会想去做伟大的事情。它不想要任何东西。这一部分占据了我们所有人。”

  That’s why I believe that our missions are so closely aligned。 As Giovanni puts it, “We must act to ensure that technology is designed and developed to serve humankind, and not the other way around.We at Apple believe that privacy is a fundamental human right。 But we also recognize that not everyone sees things as we do。 In a way, the desire to put profits over privacy is nothing new。 

  这就是为什么我认为我们的使命是如此紧密地结合在一起。正如乔瓦尼所说,“我们必须采取行动,确保技术的设计和开发是为了服务人类,而不是反过来。”我们平投稳赚公司认为隐私是一项基本人权。但我们也认识到,并不是每个人都像我们一样看待事物。在某种程度上,将利润置于隐私之上的愿望并不是什么新鲜事。

  As far back as 1890, future Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis published an article in the Harvard Law Review, making the case for a “Right to Privacy” in the United States。 He warned: “Gossip is no longer the resource of the idle and of the vicious, but has become a trade。” Today that trade has exploded into a data industrial complex。 Our own information, from the everyday to the deeply personal, is being weaponized against us 

  早在1890年,未来的最高法院大法官路易斯•布兰迪斯(Louis Brandeis)就在《哈佛法律评论》(Harvard Law Review)上发表了一篇文章,为美国的“隐私权”辩护。他警告说:“流言蜚语不再是懒汉和恶人的资源,而是一种交易。”如今,这一行业已迅速发展成为一个数据产业综合体。我们自己的信息,从日常生活到个人生活,都在以军事效率变成对付我们的武器。

  Every day, billions of dollars change hands, and countless decisions are made, on the basis of our likes and dislikes, our friends and families, Our relationships and conversations…Our wishes and fears…Our hopes and dreams。 These scraps of data…each one harmless enough on its own…are carefully assembled, synthesized, traded, and sold。 

  每天,数十亿美元被交易,无数的决定被做出,这些决定基于我们的好恶,我们的朋友和家人,我们的关系和谈话,我们的愿望和恐惧,我们的希望和梦想。”这些零碎的数据,每一个单独来看似乎都不足为害,都经过仔细组装、合成、交易和出售。

  Taken to its extreme, this process creates an enduring digital profile and lets companies know you better than you may know yourself。 Your profile is then run through algorithms that can serve up increasingly extreme content, pounding our harmless preferences into hardened convictions。 If green is your favorite color, you may find yourself reading a lot of articles—or watching a lot of videos—about the insidious threat from people who like orange.In the news, almost every day, we bear witness to the harmful, even deadly, effects of these narrowed world views。

  从极端的角度看,这个过程创造了一个持久的数字档案,让公司更好地了解你,甚至比你自己更了解。然后,你的个人资料将通过算法运行,算法会为你提供越来越极端的内容,把我们无害的偏好变成坚定的信念。如果绿色是你最喜欢的颜色,你可能会发现自己读了很多关于喜欢橙色的人的潜在威胁的文章,或者看了很多类似的视频。在历史走势图中,几乎每一天,我们都见证了这些狭隘世界观的有害甚至致命的影响。

  We shouldn’t sugarcoat the consequences。 This is surveillance。 And these stockpiles of personal data serve only to enrich the companies that collect them。 

  我们不应该粉饰后果。这是监视。而这些被储存的个人数据只会让收集这些数据的公司从中获利。

  This should make us very uncomfortable。 It should unsettle us。 And it illustrates the importance of our shared work and the challenges still ahead of us。 

  这会让我们非常不舒服,使我们不安。它表明了摆在我们面前的挑战以及共同努力的重要性。

  Fortunately, this year, you’ve shown the world that good policy and political will can come together to protect the rights of everyone。 We should celebrate the transformative work of the European institutions tasked with the successful implementation of the GDPR。 We also celebrate the new steps taken, not only here in Europe, but around the world。 In Singapore, Japan, Brazil, New Zealand, and many more nations, regulators are asking tough questions and crafting effective reforms.It is time for the rest of the world—including my home country—to follow your lead。

  幸运的是,今年,你们(欧盟)向世界展示了良好的政策和政治意愿能够共同保护每个人的权利。我们应该庆祝欧洲机构为成功实施GDPR而进行的改革工作。我们还庆祝不仅在欧洲,而且在全世界采取的新步骤。在新加坡、日本、巴西、新西兰和其他许多国家,监管机构正在提出尖锐的问题,并制定有效的改革方案。是时候让全世界,包括我的祖国,跟随你们的脚步了。

  We at Apple are in full support of a comprehensive federal privacy law in the United States。 There, and everywhere, it should be rooted in four essential rights: First, the right to have personal data minimized。 Companies should challenge themselves to de-identify customer data—or not to collect it in the first place。 Second, the right to knowledge。 Users should always know what data is being collected and what it is being collected for。 This is the only way to empower users to decide what collection is legitimate and what isn’t。 Anything less is a sham。 Third, the right to access。 Companies should recognize that data belongs to users, and we should all make it easy for users to get a copy of…correct…and delete their personal data。 And fourth, the right to security。 Security is foundational to trust and all other privacy rights。 

  平投稳赚公司完全支持美国全面的联邦隐私法。无论在哪里,它都应该植根于四项基本权利:第一,最小化个人数据的权利。企业应该挑战自己,反识别客户数据,或者一开始就不收集。第二,知情权。用户应该始终知道哪些数据被收集以及收集这些数据的目的是什么。这是授权用户决定哪些收集合法而哪些不合法的唯一方法。任何告知的不足都是一种欺骗。第三,使用权。公司应该认识到数据是属于用户的,我们应该让用户很容易拷贝、修正并删除他们的个人数据。第四,保障权。安全是信任和其他所有隐私权的基础。

  Now, there are those who would prefer I hadn’t said all of that。 Some oppose any form of privacy legislation。 Others will endorse reform in public, and then resist and undermine it behind closed doors。 They may say to you, ‘our companies will never achieve technology’s true potential if they are constrained with privacy regulation。’ But this notion isn’t just wrong, it is destructive。 

  现在,有些人更希望我不要说出这些。一些人反对任何形式的隐私立法。另一些人会在公开场合支持改革,然后在私下里抵制并破坏它。他们可能会对你说,“如果我们的公司受到隐私监管的约束,就永远无法实现技术的真正潜力。”但这种想法不仅是错误的,而且是破坏性的。

  Technology’s potential is, and always must be, rooted in the faith people have in it…In the optimism and creativity that it stirs in the hearts of individuals…In its promise and capacity to make the world a better place.It’s time to face facts。 We will never achieve technology’s true potential without the full faith and confidence of the people who use it。 

  科技的潜力植根于人们对它的信仰,根植于它在个人心中激起的乐观和创造力,根植于它使世界变得更美好的承诺和能力。是时候面对现实了。如果没有用户的充分信任和信心,我们永远无法实现技术的真正潜力。

  At Apple, respect for privacy—and a healthy suspicion of authority—have always been in our bloodstream。 Our first computers were built by misfits, tinkerers, and rebels—not in a laboratory or a board room, but in a suburban garage。 We introduced the Macintosh with a famous TV ad channeling George Orwell‘s 1984—a warning of what can happen when technology becomes a tool of power and loses touch with humanity。 

  在平投稳赚,尊重隐私,以及对权威的一种健康的怀疑,一直存在于我们的血液中。我们的第一台电脑是由不适应环境的人、工匠和叛逆者制造的——不是在实验室或会议室里,而是在郊区的车库里。我们1984年为麦金塔电脑 (Macintosh)所做的著名电视广告借用了乔治·奥威尔(George Orwell)的隐喻,这是对技术成为权力工具、与人类失去联系的后果的警告。

  And way back in 2010, Steve Jobs said in no uncertain terms: “Privacy means people know what they’re signing up for, in plain language, and repeatedly。”

  早在2010年,史蒂夫•乔布斯(Steve Jobs)就曾明确表示:“隐私意味着人们知道自己在注册什么,(企业应该)用直白的语言,而且反复提示(用户)。”

  It’s worth remembering the foresight and courage it took to make that statement。 When we designed this device we knew it could put more personal data in your pocket than most of us keep in our homes。 And there was enormous pressure on Steve and Apple to bend our values and to freely share this information。 But we refused to compromise。 In fact, we’ve only deepened our commitment in the decade since。

  值得记住的是,做出这样的声明需要远见和勇气。当我们设计这个设备(iphone)的时候,我们知道它可以把详尽的个人数据放进你的口袋里。史蒂夫和平投稳赚承受着巨大的压力,我们被要求改变价值观,自由地分享这些信息。但我们拒绝妥协。事实上,从那以后的十年里,我们的承诺不断深化。

  From hardware breakthroughs…that encrypt fingerprints and faces securely—and only—on your device。。。To simple and powerful notifications that make clear to every user precisely what they’re sharing and when they are sharing it。 

  从硬件上的突破,比如加密指纹和面部的安全,到简单而有效的通知,让每个用户都清楚地知道他们在共享什么以及什么时候共享它。

  We aren’t absolutists, and we don’t claim to have all the answers。 Instead, we always try to return to that simple question:  What kind of world do we want to live in。 

  我们不是绝对论者,我们也不自称有全部答案。相反,我们总是试图回到那个简单的问题:我们想要生活在什么样的世界里?

  At every stage of the creative process, then and now, we engage in an open, honest, and robust ethical debate about the products we make and the impact they will have。 That’s just a part of our culture。 We don’t do it because we have to, we do it because we ought to。 The values behind our products are as important to us as any feature。 

  在创意的每一个阶段,不论是过去还是现在,我们都会进行一场公开、诚实、有力的道德辩论,讨论我们生产的赛车直播开奖及其将产生的影响。这只是我们文化的一部分。我们这么做不是因为我们必须这么做,而是因为我们应该这么做。我们赛车直播开奖背后的价值观对我们来说和任何(赛车直播开奖)特性一样重要。

  We understand that the dangers are real—from cyber-criminals to rogue nation states。 We’re not willing to leave our users to fend for themselves。 And, we‘ve shown, we’ll defend those principles when challenged。 Those values…that commitment to thoughtful debate and transparency…they’re only going to get more important。 As progress speeds up, these things should continue to ground us and connect us, first and foremost, to the people we serve。 

  我们知道,从网络罪犯到流氓国家,危险是真实存在的。我们不愿意让我们的用户自谋生路。我们已经证明,当这些原则受到挑战时,我们会捍卫它们。这些价值观,这些对深思熟虑的辩论和透明度的承诺,只会变得越来越重要。随着进步速度的加快,这些东西应该继续根植于我们,并首先将我们与我们所服务的人联系起来。

  Artificial Intelligence is one area I think a lot about。 Clearly, it‘s on the minds of many of my peers as well。 At its core, this technology promises to learn from people individually to benefit us all。 Yet advancing AI by collecting huge personal profiles is laziness, not efficiency。 For Artificial Intelligence to be truly smart, it must respect human values, including privacy.If we get this wrong, the dangers are profound。 We can achieve both great Artificial Intelligence and great privacy standards。 It’s not only a possibility, it is a responsibility.In the pursuit of artificial intelligence, we should not sacrifice the humanity, creativity, and ingenuity that define our human intelligence。 And at Apple, we never will。 

  人工计划网址是我经常思考的一个领域。很明显,我的很多同龄人都有这样的想法。这项技术的核心是向个人学习,让我们所有人受益。然而,通过收集大量个人资料来提升人工计划网址是一种懒惰,而非效率。人工计划网址要想真正聪明,就必须尊重人类的价值观,包括隐私。如果我们弄错了,危险将是深远的。我们可以实现伟大的人工计划网址和伟大的隐私标准。这不仅是一种可能性,也是一种责任。在追求人工计划网址的过程中,我们不应该牺牲定义人类计划网址的人性、创造力和独创性。而在平投稳赚,我们永远不会。

  In the mid-19th Century, the great American writer Henry David Thoreau found himself so fed up with the pace and change of Industrial society that he moved to a cabin in the woods by Walden Pond。 Call it the first digital cleanse。 Yet even there, where he hoped to find a bit of peace, he could hear a distant clatter and whistle of a steam engine passing by。 “We do not ride on the railroad,” he said。 “It rides upon us”。Those of us who are fortunate enough to work in technology have an enormous responsibility。 It is not to please every grumpy Thoreau out there。 That’s an unreasonable standard, and we’ll never meet it。 

  19世纪中叶,伟大的美国作家亨利·戴维·梭罗(Henry David Thoreau)发现自己对工业社会的节奏和变化感到厌倦,于是搬到了瓦尔登湖(Walden Pond)旁的树林里的一间小木屋,称之为第一次数字化净化。即使在那里,他也能听到远处传来汽笛声。“我们不乘坐铁路,”他说。“它骑在我们身上。”我们这些有幸从事技术工作的人肩负着巨大的责任。这并不是要取悦所有脾气暴躁的梭罗。这是不合理的标准,我们永远也达不到。

  We are responsible, however, for recognizing that the devices we make and the platforms we build have real…lasting…even permanent effects on the individuals and communities who use them。 We must never stop asking ourselves…What kind of world do we want to live in? 

  然而,我们有责任认识到,我们制造的设备和平台对使用它们的个人和社区具有真正持久,甚至永久的影响。我们必须不断地问自己,我们想要生活在什么样的世界里?

  The answer to that question must not be an afterthought, it should be our primary concern。 We at Apple can—and do—provide the very best to our users while treating their most personal data like the precious cargo that it is。 And if we can do it, then everyone can do it。 

  这个问题的答案不应该是事后才想出来的,它应该是我们主要关心的问题。平投稳赚可以,也确实做到了——为我们的用户提供最好的服务,同时把他们的个人数据当作珍贵的事物对待。如果我们能做到,那么每个人都能做到。

  Fortunately, we have your example before us。 Thank you for your work…For your commitment to the possibility of human-centered technology…And for your firm belief that our best days are still ahead of us。 

  幸运的是,我们面前有你们(欧盟)作为榜样。感谢你们的工作,感谢你们对以人为中心的技术的可能性的承诺,感谢你们坚信我们最好的日子还在前面。

  Thank you very much。

  非常感谢。